Table of Contents

The Old North State at War

The Old North State at War: The North Carolina Civil War Atlas
By Mark A. Moore, Jessica A. Bandel, and Michael Hill

FOREWORD by Craig L. Symonds

Retired Professor at the United States Naval Academy. Recipient of the Lincoln Prize, biographer of Joseph E. Johnston, and author of Lincoln and His Admirals (2008) and The Civil War at Sea (2010), among others

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: “To Arms! To Arms!” North Carolina and the Coming of the Civil War

Road To Secession

  • Prelude
  • 1860: The Gathering Storm
  • Vote For or Against Secession Convention, 1861 — (Table)
  • 1861: The Die Is Cast
  • North Carolina Appointees to the Provisional Confederate Congress, 1861-1862 — (Table)
  • North Carolina Demographics, 1860
  • Military-Age Population by County, 1860 — (Table)
  • Slave and Free Population by County, 1860 — (Table)
  • Households Owning Slaves, Listed by County, 1860 — (Table)
  • Plantation Life: Stagville and Somerset
  • MAP: Historic Stagville — Large Slaveholding Plantation
  • MAP: Somerset Place — Large Slaveholding Plantation
  • MAP: The United States on the Eve of the Civil War

Mobilizing and Outfitting the Troops

  • Preparing For War
  • Generals from North Caroline (Confederate and Union) — (Table)
  • Military Installations: A Selected List, 1861-1865 — (Table)
  • Manufacturing For War
  • Arms and Munition Factories in North Carolina, 1861-1865 — (Table)
  • Textile Mills in North Carolina: A Selected List — (Table)

CHAPTER 2: “The Old North State Forever”: North Carolina at War, 1861-1862

Native Sons Serving Outside North Carolina

  • Notable Battles of 1861-1862 in which North Carolinians Participated
  •  Henry Lawson Wyatt

The Home Front, 1861-1862

  • North Carolina Delegates to the First Confederate States Congress, 1862-1864 — (Table)
  • First Confederate States Congress Election Results, 1861 — (Table)
  • Gubernatorial Election Results, 1862 — (Table)

​Invasion of the Coast, July 1861-July 1862

  • MAP: The Fall of Hatteras Island, July-December 1861

The Burnside Expedition

  • MAP: The Burnside Expedition, February-July 1862
  • MAP: Battle of Roanoke Island, February 7-8, 1862 — (Area)
  • One Soldier’s Lasting Memories of Battle Injuries: Private Francis H. Wixon and the Trial of Lizzie Borden
  • MAP: Battle of Roanoke Island , February 8, 1862 — (Tactical)
  • MAP: Battle of New Bern, March 14, 1862
  • MAP: Engagement at South Mills, April 19, 1862
  • Commendation for Courage: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger
  • MAP: Fort Macon, Captured by Union Forces April 26, 1862 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Beaufort Harbor, Siege of Fort Macon, March 23-April 26, 1862
  • Seeking Freedom: Vincent Colyer and Refugee Slaves
  • MAP: Foster’s Raid: New Bern to Goldsboro, December 11-20, 1862

Early Raids on the Eastern Interior: August-December 1862

  • MAP: Skirmishes at Southwest Creek, December 13-14, 1862
  • MAP: Engagement at Kinston, December 14, 1862
  • MAP: Engagement at White Hall, December 16, 1862
  • MAP: Engagement at Goldsboro Bridge, Destruction of the Railroad Bridge and Tracks, December 17, 1862
  • MAP: Engagement at Goldsboro Bridge, Confederate Counterattack at Sundown, December 17, 1862
  • MAP: Raids and Counterattacks, August-December 1862

CHAPTER 3: “With My Face to the Enemy”: North Carolina and the High Tide of the Confederacy, 1863

​Native Sons Serving Outside North Carolina

  • Notable Battles of 1863 in which North Carolinians Participated
  • The 18th North Carolina Infantry and the Death of Stonewall Jackson
  • A Dying Son’s Last Words: Col. Isaac E. Avery at Gettysburg

The Home Front, 1863

  • North Carolinians Elected to the Second Confederate States Congress — (Table)
  • The Freedmen’s Colony on Roanoke Island
  • Congressional Districts, The Congress of the Confederate States, 1861-1865
  • Second Confederate States Congress Election Results, 1863 — (Table)

​Occupation and Containment

  • MAP: Raids and Counterattacks, January-June 1863
  • D. H. Hill: Beleaguered Commander
  • MAP: Raids and Counterattacks, July-December 1863
  • MAP: Expedition Against New Bern, March 8-16, 1862
  • MAP: Potter’s Raid: New Bern to Tarboro and Rocky Mount, July 18-24, 1863
  • Governor Evades Capture: Henry Toole Clarke
  • MAP: Raid on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, July 3-7, 1863
  • MAP: Siege of Washington, March 30-April 20, 1863 — (Campaign)
  • MAP: Siege of Washington, March 30-April 20, 1863 — (Detail)
  • MAP: Raid on Weldon, July 24-August 3, 1863
  • Wild’s African Brigade
  • MAP: Wild’s African Brigade, December 5-24, 1863

Unionist Dissent: The War in the Western Highlands

  • Prominent Unionist Areas of Western North Carolina
  • Shelton Laurel Massacre
  • MAP: Bushwhackers and the Union Military Threat from East Tennessee, February 1862-December 1863
  • Hoke Hunts Deserters, 1863
  • MAP: Divided Allegiances, February-December 1863

North Carolina’s Union Volunteers

  • Union Enlistment by Date, 1862-1865 — (Table)
  • Union Enlistment by County of Residence — (Table)
  • U.S. Colored Troops Enlistment by County of Residence — (Table)

CHAPTER 4: “This Cruel, Cruel War”: Dissent and Destruction, 1864

​Native Sons Serving Outside North Carolina

  • Notable Battles of 1864 in which North Carolinians Participated​
  • Native Sons in Blue: Olustee and New Market Heights

The Home Front, 1864

  • Gubernatorial Election Returns, 1864 — (Table)
  • The Bread Riots
  • Market Prices, 1861-1865 (in Dollars) — (Table)
  • Quakers and Conscientious Objection to the War

Resistance in the East, 1864

  • MAP: Confederate Resurgence, January-May 1864
  • MAP: Pickett’s Attack on New Bern, January 30-February 3, 1864
  • MAP: Defenses of New Bern, 1862-1864
  • Gen. James G. Martin
  • MAP: Martin’s Attack on the Atlantic & North Carolina Railroad, In Support of Pickett’s Advance on New Bern, January 30-February 4, 1864
  • MAP: Battle of Plymouth, Including Diagram of CSS Albemarle, April 17-20, 1864
  • MAP: Naval Engagement in the Roanoke River, USS Southfield and CSS Albemarle, April 19, 1864
  • MAP: Union Evacuation of Washington and Hoke’s Advance on New Bern, April 26-May 8, 1864
  • MAP: Naval Engagement in Albemarle Sound, CSS Albemarle and Ships of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, May 5, 1864
  • MAP: Union Reoccupation, June-December 1864
  • MAP: Union Recapture of Plymouth and Destruction of CSS Albemarle, Including Diagram of Cushing’s Picket Launch No. 1, Equipped with a Spar Torpedo
  • MAP: Joint Union Expedition to Rainbow Bluff, To Attack Fort Branch, December 9-21, 1864
  • MAP: Fort Branch, Defending the Roanoke Valley, Completed in February 1863 — (Area and Diagram)
  • Brig. Gen. Collett Leventhorpe

Guerrillas and Bushwhackers: The War in the Western Highlands, 1864

  • Desertion Rates for Western North Carolina Counties — (Graph)
  • MAP: Kirk’s Raid on Camp Vance and the Western North Carolina Railroad, June 13-July 15, 1864
  • MAP: Kirk’s Raid on Camp Vance: Confederate Resistance, June 28-30, 1864
  • Thomas’s Legion
  • MAP: Conventional Operations and Guerrilla Warfare: Cross-Border Raids and Partisan Violence, 1864

CHAPTER 5: Running the Blockade: The War at Sea, 1861-1865

Native Sons in Confederate Naval Service

  • MAP: CSS Neuse, Ironclad Gunboat (Ram) — (Diagram)
  • ​John Newland Maffitt
  • MAP: The Union Blockade, 1864-1865
  • Capt. James I. Waddell and the CSS Shenandoah​

Wartime Wilmington

  • MAP: City of Wilmington, Inner and Outer Defenses
  • MAP: Cape Fear Estuary and Approaches to Wilmington
  • Blockading Actions, 1861-1865

Confederate Defenses of the Cape Fear

  • MAP: Battery Buchanan, below Fort Fisher at New Inlet, Completed in October 1864 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the Largest Earthen Fort in the Confederacy, Continuous Construction, April 1861-January 1865 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Holmes, Smith’s Island at Old Inlet, Continuous Construction, September 1863-January 1865 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Campbell, Oak Island, West of Fort Caswell, Continuous Construction, 1862-1865 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Caswell, Western Bar, Cape Fear River, Originally Built 1826-1838 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Johnston (Pender), at Smithville, Colonial Era Fortification Strengthened 1861-1865
  • MAP: Fort Anderson, Inland Guardian of the Cape Fear, Continuous Construction, 1862-1865 — (Diagram)

CHAPTER 6: “One Final Push”: Hard Fighting, 1865

Native Sons Serving Outside North Carolina

The Home Front, 1865

First Expedition Against Fort Fisher, December 1864

  • MAP: Joint Union Expedition to Fort Fisher, To Close the Port of Wilmington, December 1864-January 1865
  • MAP: “The Powder Vessel,” USS Louisiana, Built in 1860, Exploded off Fort Fisher, December 24, 1864 — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the First Attack: Union Bombardment, Amphibious Landing, and Reconnaissance, December 24-25, 1864
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the First Attack: Confederate Battery Commanders and the Advance of Union Skirmishers, December 24-25, 1864

Second Expedition Against Fort Fisher, January 1865

  • U.S. Navy at Fort Fisher, January 13-15, 1865
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the Second Attack: Union Bombardment, Amphibious Landing, and Ground Assault, January 13-15, 1865
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the Second Attack: U.S. Army and Naval Ground Assault, January 15, 1865
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the Second Attack: Advance of Abbott’s Brigade and the 27th U.S. Colored Troops, January 15, 1865
  • MAP: Fort Fisher, the Second Attack: Confederate Retreat and Surrender, January 15, 1865
  • Fort Fisher: Then and Now

The Fall of Wilmington, January-February 1865

  • MAP: The Wilmington Campaign, Securing the City in Support of Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign, February 11-22, 1865
  • MAP: Engagement at Sugar Loaf, Probe of Hoke’s Entrenched Position Blocking the Eastern Route to Wilmington, February 11, 1865
  • MAP: Engagement at Fort Anderson, February 14-19, 1865
  • MAP: Bombardment of Fort Anderson, Clearing the Western Approaches, February 18, 1865
  • U.S. Navy in the Wilmington Campaign
  • MAP: Engagements at Town Creek and Forks Road, the Final Defensive Lines Below Wilmington, February 19-21, 1865
  • MAP: Bombardment of River Batteries Below Wilmington, Including Diagrams of Sawyer Obstructions in the Cape Fear River, February 20-21, 1865
  • MAP: The Fall of Wilmington, Bragg’s Retreat and Skirmish at Northeast Station, February 22, 1865

​Sherman’s March: The Road to Bentonville, February-March 1865​

  • MAP: Sherman’s March through South Carolina, from Savannah, Georgia, to the North Carolina Line, February 1-March 7, 1865
  • MAP: Incursion Into North Carolina, Kilpatrick’s Cavalry and Elements of the Union Left Wing Cross the Border, February 26-March 6, 1865
  • MAP: Sherman’s March to Fayetteville, Opening Communication with Terry’s Union Forces at Wilmington Via the Cape Fear River, March 6-11, 1865
  • MAP: City of Fayetteville, Plank Road Hub, Inland Port, and Marketplace, March 11, 1865
  • Gen. William T. Sherman
  • MAP: Cox’s March from New Bern Toward Goldsboro, Resistance at Southwest Creek, En Route to a Junction with Sherman at Goldsboro, March 6-7, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Wyse Fork (“Wise’s Forks”), Capture of Upham’s Brigade and Palmer’s Withdrawal to the British Road, March 8, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Wyse Fork (“Wise’s Forks”), Strong Skirmishing and Bragg’s Abandoned Probe of the Union Right Flank, March 9, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Wyse Fork (“Wise’s Forks”), Hoke’s Flank Attack with Support from the Army of Tennessee Contingent, March 10, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Monroe’s Crossroads, Hampton’s Surprise Attack at Dawn, March 10, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Monroe’s Crossroads, Union Rally and Confederate Retreat, March 10, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Averasboro, Kilpatrick’s Advance and Rhett’s Capture, Attack on Hardee’s First Line, Cavalry Engagement on the Right, March 15-16, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Averasboro, Attack on Hardee’s Second Line, March 16, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Averasboro, Standoff at Hardee’s Main Line, March 16, 1865

The Battle of Bentonville, March 19-21, 1865

  • MAP: Sherman’s March Toward Goldsboro, Johnston’s Last Stand in North Carolina, March 13-21, 1865
  • MAP: Cox’s March to Goldsboro, the Junction with Sherman’s Army, March 1-21, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, Confederate Deployment, Carlin’s Deployment and Probing Attack, Arrival of Morgan and Jackson, March 19, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, Main Confederate Attack, Rout of Carlin’s Division, Fearing’s Counterattack, and Robinson’s Retreat to the Morris Farm, March 19, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, Hoke’s Attack below the Goldsboro Road, Hill’s Attack, Morgan’s Stand, Ward’s Arrival, and Advance of Cogswell’s Brigade, March 19, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, Confederate High Tide, Union Defense of the Morris Farm, Ward’s Deployment, and Cogswell’s Extended Engagement below the Goldsboro Road, March 19, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, Bragg’s Change of Front, Arrival of the Union Right Wing, and Sharp Skirmishing Along the Lines, March 20, 1865
  • MAP: Battle of Bentonville, The Union Right Wing’s Advance to the Ravine, Mower’s Charge, and Hardee’s Counterattack, March 21, 1865
  • Bentonville: Then and Now
  • Bentonville Monument: Then and Now

Stoneman’s Raid and the End of the War in Western North Carolina

  • MAP: Stoneman’s Raid, March 28-April 27, 1865
  • MAP: Engagement at Grant’s Creek, April 12, 1865
  • Gen. George Stoneman
  • MAP: Final Actions in the Western Highlands, February-May 1865
  • Salisbury Prison
  • MAP: Salisbury Prison, December 1861-April 1865 — (Diagram) — Burned by Stoneman’s Troops — 10,000 Union prisoners of war were held within the compound by November 1864 — Roughly 4,000 Union prisoners died here — 18 burial trenches, 240 feet long, became the foundation for nearby Salisbury National Cemetery, dedicated in 1874

Sherman’s Final Campaign, Goldsboro to Raleigh, April 1865​

  • MAP: Sherman’s March from Goldsboro to Raleigh, End of the War, April 10-14, 1865
  • MAP: Union Occupation of Raleigh, “The City of Oaks,” End of the War, April 13-30, 1865

Surrender, April-May 1865​

  • MAP: Bennett Place, Farm Home of James and Nancy Bennett, Confederate Surrender Site — (Diagram)
  • MAP: Johnston’s Surrender Near Durham Station, End of the War, April 14-26, 1865

CHAPTER 7: “To Further the Great Ends of Peace”: Freedon, Sacrifice, and Memory

The War’s Lasting Legacies

Freedom

  • Parker Robbins

Sacrifice

  • Artificial Limbs Program Applications by County — (Table)
  • North Carolina’s Civil War Dead
  • Total Deaths by County, Confederate and Union, Including U.S. Colored Troops — (Table)
  • Confederate Deaths by Type — (Pie Chart)
  • Union Deaths by Type (Non-USCT) — (Pie Chart)
  • U.S. Colored Troops Deaths by Type — (Pie Chart)

Memory

Selected Bibliography

Index

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